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Summary of the Files used and the Preprocessing Steps

Gap4 stores the data for an assembly project in a gap4 database. Before being entered into the gap4 database the data must be passed through several preassembly steps, usually via pregap4 (see section Pregap4 introduction). These steps are outlined below.

The programs can handle data produced by a variety of sequencing instruments. They can also handle data entered using digitisers or that has been typed in by hand. Usually the trace files in proprietary format, such as those of ABI, are converted to SCF files (see section SCF introduction) or ZTR files. As originally put forward in Bonfield,J.K. and Staden,R. The application of numerical estimates of base calling accuracy to DNA sequencing projects. Nucleic Acids Research 23, 1406-1410 (1995). gap4 makes important use of basecall confidence values, (see section The use of numerical estimates of base calling accuracy) which are normally stored in the reading's SCF file.

One of the first steps in the preprocessing is to copy the base calls from the trace files to text files known as Experiment files (see section Experiment files). All the subsequent processes operate on the Experiment files. Other preassembly steps include quality and vector clipping. Each step is performed by a specific program controlled by the program pregap4 (see section Pregap4 introduction).

Experiment file format is similar to that of EMBL sequence entries in that each record starts with a two letter identifier, but we have invented new records specific to sequencing experiments. One of pregap4's tasks is to augment the Experiment files to include data about the vectors, primers and templates used in the production of each reading, and if necessary it can extract this information from external databases. Some of the information is needed by pregap4 and some by gap4. (Note that in order to get the most from gap4 it is essential to make sure that it is supplied, via the Experiment files, with all the information it needs.)

The trace files are not altered, but are kept as archival data so that it is always possible to check the original base calls and traces. Any changes to the data prior to assembly (and we recommend that none are made until readings can be viewed aligned with others) are made to the copy of the sequence in the Experiment file.

The reading data, in Experiment file format, is entered into the project database (see section Gap Database Files), usually via one of the assembly engines. Because Experiment file format was based on EMBL file format, EMBL files can also be entered and their feature tables will be convered to tags. There is no limit to the length of readings which can be entered.

All the changes to the data made by gap4 are made to the copies of the data in the project database. Once the data has been copied into the gap4 database the Experiment files are no longer required.

Gap4 uses the trace files to display the traces (see section Traces), and to compare the edited bases with the original base calls (see section Search by Evidence for Edit (1)), (see section Search by Evidence for Edit (2)). However gap4 databases do not store trace files: they record only the names of the trace files (which are copied from the readings' Experiment files). This means that if the trace files for a project are not in the same directory/folder as the gap4 database, gap4 needs to be told where they are, otherwise it cannot use them. Ideally, all the trace files for a project should be stored in one directory. To tell gap4 where they are the "Trace file location" command in the Options menu should be used (see section Trace File Location).

Gap4 databases have a number of size constraints, some of which can be altered by users and others which are fixed.

While gap4 is running it often needs to calculate a consensus. The maximum size of this sequence is controlled by a variable "maxseq". Most routines are able to automatically increase the value of maxseq while they are running, but some of the older functions, including some of the original assembly engines, are not. This means that it is important for users to set maxseq to a sufficiently high value before running these elderly routines. By default maxseq is currently set to 100000, but users can set it on the command line or from within the Options menu.

Gap4 databases contain one record for each reading and one for each contig. The sum of these two sets of records is the "database_size", and the maximum value that database_size is permitted to reach is "maxdb". When databases are initialised maxdb is set, by default, to 8000. Users can alter this value on the command line or from within the Options menu of gap4.

Gap4 databases also limit the number and names of readings so that various output routines know how many character positions are required: the maximum number imposed in this way is 99,999,999, and the maximum reading name length is 40.

Currently we have sites with single gap4 databases containing over 200,000 readings with consensus sequences in excess of 7,000,000 bases.

A gap4 database can be used by several users simultaneously, but only one is allowed to change the contents of the database, and the others are given "readonly" access. As part of its mechanism to prevent more than one person editing a database at once gap4 uses a "BUSY" file to signify that the database is opened for writing. Before opening a database for writing, gap4 checks to see if the BUSY file for that database exists. If it does, the database is opened only for reading, if not it creates the file, so that any additional attempts to open the database for writing will be blocked. When the user with write access closes the database, the BUSY file is deleted, hence re-enabling its ability to be opened for changes. It is worth remembering that a side effect of this mechanism, is that in the event of a program or system crash the BUSY file will be left on the disk, even though the database is not being used. In this case users must remove the BUSY file before using the database (see section Gap4 Database Files).

The final result from a sequencing project is a consensus sequence (see section The Consensus Calculation) and gap4 can write these in Experiment file format, fasta format or staden format. Of course the whole database and all the trace files are also useful for future reference as they allow any queries about the accuracy of the sequence to be answered.

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This page is maintained by staden-package. Last generated on 22 October 2002.